Canada is a North American country stretching from the US border in the south to the Arctic Circle in the north. Canada is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, its monarch is the monarch of the British Commonwealth of Nations; it is a bilingual and multicultural country where English and French are recognized as official languages ​​at the federal level. Technologically and industrially developed state. The country has a diversified economy based on rich natural resources and trade (in particular with the United States, with which Canada has been cooperating comprehensively since the existence of the colonies and the founding of the Confederation).

Founded by the French explorer J. Cartier in 1534, Canada originates from a French colony on the site of modern Quebec, originally inhabited by local peoples. After a period of English colonization, the Canadian confederation was born from the union of three British colonies (which were previously territories of New France). Canada gained independence from the United Kingdom through a peace process that lasted from 1867 to 1982.

Canada is currently a federal state of ten provinces and three territories. The province with a predominantly French-speaking population is Quebec, the rest are predominantly English-speaking provinces, also called "English Canada". As one of nine predominantly English-speaking provinces, New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual Canadian province. The Yukon Territory is officially bilingual (English and French), while the Northwest Territories and Nunavut Territory recognize eleven, including four official languages ​​respectively (which also includes English and French).

Canada is a multinational state with a wide ethno-cultural, religious and racial diversity. According to the 2006 census, there are 43 ethnic groups in Canada, consisting of at least 100,000 people. The largest ethnic group calls themselves "Canadians" (30.9%), as most Canadians, especially those whose ancestors came during the colonization, consider themselves as Canadian people. This is followed by those who call themselves English (20.1%), French (15.1%), Scots (14.5%), Irish (13.3%), Germans (9.7%), Italians (4 .4%), Chinese (4.1%), Indians (3.8%), Ukrainians (3.7%), Dutch (3.2%), Poles (3%), Indians (3%), Russians (1.5%).

Canadians practice a large number of religions. According to the latest census, 67.3% of Canadians consider themselves Christians, most of them are Catholics (39% of Canadians). The most important Protestant church is the United Church of Canada (unites most of the Calvinists (some Presbyterians and all Congregationalists and Methodists); approximately 23.9% of Canadians do not associate themselves with any religion, and the rest of the population (8.8%) professes other religions ( Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism).Two-thirds of Canadian Muslims live in the country's three largest cities - Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Toronto has the largest Muslim community - 424 thousand people, in Montreal and Vancouver, respectively, more than 221 thousand and about 73 thousand 200. This is the fastest growing community in Canada.

In commemoration of Canada's diversity of peoples, the country has embraced a policy of multiculturalism, or multiculturalism, since the 1960s. In Canadian cities, elements from cultures around the world can be found; in many cities there are quarters with a predominance of some national minority (for example, Chinese, Italian, Portuguese quarters in Toronto and Montreal), festivals dedicated to the cultures of different countries are regularly held. The maritime provinces preserve the Celtic folklore of the Irish and Scots, which at the same time blends well with the Gallo-Romance themes of Celtic Gaul, prevalent in Acadia and Quebec. The influence of the indigenous population of Canada is also noticeable: in many places you can find huge totem poles and other works of art of the indigenous peoples.

The francophone population of Canada stands out significantly. It gives a special specificity to the character of Canada; Montreal is the most important center of French-speaking culture in Canada. Many francophone artists come to Montreal from various parts of the country (Quebec, Acadia, Ontario, Manitoba, etc.), from the USA (especially from Louisiana), and also from the Caribbean region to pursue a career in literature, music, cinema etc.

Canadian culture is influenced by recent immigrants from all parts of the world. Many people come to Canada from Europe, the Middle East and Africa, which contributes to the development of relevant cultural elements in the life of the country. Many Canadians embrace multiculturalism, and it can be seen from the views of some people that Canada's culture in the narrow sense of the word is multicultural. Canada's multicultural heritage is protected by Article 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

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